General Biology with Santiago

Below are the Supplemental Instruction materials for BSC 2010 section 1, with Thomas.


  • EXAM III Review Already Happened. Only the Final Exam Review is Left:

    • Final Exam Review:

      • When?

        • Tuesday, August 1st. 12:00 – 2:00 PM

      • Where?

      • Why?

        • This final review will be held the day before the actual final, so it is your final opportunity to ask questions.

      • Material Covered:

        • The final review sheet will be uploaded here by the end of the weekend.


Welcome to the BSC 2010C SI WordPress site. Below you will find the link to my 4:00 PM online session as well as some helpful materials to help you understand some of the more difficult concepts that you have been covering in lecture. 

I try to post a Kahoot game for every chapter after it is covered in lecture. If you do not know what Kahoot is then just click any link below in the Kahoot section and try it out. It definitely helps with showing you which parts of the chapter you may need to devote a little more time to studying. We also play these for the first few minutes of some of my sessions if enough people want to play it.

Directly under the Kahoot section is where I post my test reviews. I will only post the reviews a few days before the review session, which will be announced at the top of the page. I will post the review answers only after filling it out together during the review session, but definitely try to attend the session because I may not always be able to post the answers before the test.

I have also posted several Youtube links for some of the more difficult concepts starting with Unit 2, so make sure you check those out if you are struggling with any of the concepts I’ve linked.

Keep in mind that while I try to make my reviews and my study materials as comprehensive as I can, it is not a good idea to only study the material I give you because I am not the person making the exams, so definitely study everything that Professor Thomas suggests.

OPAL (Online Peer Assisted Learning)

  • Directly above is the link to my online session.

  • How to get on:

    1. Click the link above
    2. Type in your real first name and last name
    3. Type  in “OPAL” as the password. It is case-sensitive.
  • Common questions about OPAL

    • Will you be able to see my face?
      • No, you will all see my face, but I will not see any of yours.
    • Will you be able to hear me through my microphone?
      • No, you guys will hear me, but I will not hear you at all.
    • Can I watch the session from my phone?
      • Yes, but it makes it a lot more difficult for you to participate in the session because you lose certain functionalities such as drawing.
  • Take the quick OPAL Survey after you attend a session. It helps out the program.


    • Mitosis Questions
      • If you cannot answer these questions I typed up then take a look at the resources directly below. Those are videos that I have personally watched and found very helpful and simple to follow. You HAVE to put some time into this unit because it can get quite confusing with all the chromosome and mitosis/meiosis information.
    • Mitosis Video
      • This is an amazing video about mitosis. Watch the WHOLE video! It really makes the process a lot simpler, and it actually explains some common misunderstandings when it comes to the concept of chromosomes and chromatids. Just remember that the nuclear membrane dissolves in prophase, and I only say this because the video makes it ambiguous at one point.
    • Chromosome Explanation video
      • Guys, if you are at all confused about how chromosomes work, like even in the least, take your time with this video. Make sure you can explain the difference between chromatids and chromosomes. Also be able to make sense of the number of chromosomes and chromatids before and after processes like mitosis & meiosis.
    • Mitosis Phases Worksheet
      • It’s always good to know what the phases actually look like rather than just knowing what happens in each phase.
    • Meiosis Video
      • Understand that meiosis and mitosis are two different processes. Be able to use words like: Haploid, diploid, gametes, somatic cells, chromosomes, chromatids, etc… to describe both mitosis and meiosis.
    • Meiosis Questions
      • Here are some questions I typed up about meiosis. Use the resources given by your professor as well as the ones I have given here in order to find the information to answer these.
    • Pedigree Video
      • This channel has great explanations on many biology concepts, so make sure to check out any other relevant videos they may have if I have not linked them. Keep in mind that we do Punnett squares a bit different in this class, so always use the 2^n formula before making a Punnett Square.
    • Non-Mendelian Genetics
      • Just remember that this does not list all of the ones you need to know.
    • Calico & Tortoiseshell Cats Explained
      • Definitely check this page out. It is a brief read, but it has some great information.
    • ABO Blood Type Video
      • Learn the differences between genotype and phenotype in terms of blood types.
    • Sex-Linked Genes and Punnett Squares
      • This is an important concept to understand. The video even uses the same hemophilia example that was used in lecture.
    • Blood Types Including Rh
      • This shows you the different ways that every blood type (ABO) can be either positive or negative.

    • Organelle Functions
    • Prokaryotes vs. Eukaryotes
    • Phospholipid Bilayer
    • 4 Macromolecules:

      • Carbohydrates:(Don’t worry about memorizing all of the examples that are given)
      • Lipids:
        (Don’t worry about the steroid or wax parts)
      • Proteins:
        (Secondary protein structure does not involve R-group bonds, so ignore that part)
      • Nucleic Acids:

        (Definitely remember which nitrogenous base bonds with which in both DNA and RNA as well as the structure of a nucleotide!)

        • (Here are a couple of memory devices for DNA in order to remember which Nitrogenous base bonds to which):
        • A-T bond together and C-G bond together.
        • ColGATE — They bond in order, so C-G & A-T
        • I like to look AT George Clooney — A-T & G-C
        • Now attempt to remember which pair of Nitrogenous base bonds with 3 hydrogen bonds and which pair bonds with 2 hydrogen bonds:
        • G-C bond with 3 & A-T bond with 2.
        • G-C-3: It rhymes
        • Gee, I See 3!: It rhymes
        • ATCHOO!: It sounds like AT TWO
    • Hypertonic vs. Hypotonic vs. Isotonic
      (Be able to connect terms like: shrink, swell, lyse, crenate, plasmolyze, turgid, and flaccid to each of the types of solution above)
    • Sodium-Potassium Pump
      (Make sure you know its an example of antiport transport. Also learn their abbreviations, Na+ & K+)
    • Enzyme Concept
      (Make sure you understand the concept of enzymes before you go on to learn about other things like inhibitors)
    • Endergonic vs. Exergonic Reactions
      (You do not necessarily need to know endothermic and exothermic, but it really does help tie the whole concept together)
    • Entropy
      (This is just a fun video that gives you the general idea of what makes entropy increase over time)
    • ATP
      (Know what ATP stands for as well as how it releases energy)
    • Enzyme Inhibition
      (Only watch until the 3 minute mark because everything else is not necessary information)
      (ALSO make sure you learn what negative-feedback inhibition is because it is not mentioned in the video)
    • Awesome Respiration Summary From Lecture Notes