General Biology with Santiago

Below are the Supplemental Instruction materials for BSC 2010 section 1, with Thomas.


Good luck on your finals everyone.



    • DNA Replication Video
      • Make sure you know the difference between DNA polymerase I and III.
    • Basic Protein Synthesis Video
      • This gives the overview of protein synthesis, but keep in mind that your slides go a bit more in-depth.
    • Amino Acid Chart
      • Be sure you know how to go from and mRNA strand into a chain of amino acids. That is slightly covered at the end of the protein synthesis video above.
    • Worksheet from SI Session
      • This worksheet covers the basics of DNA Replication as well as some transcription and translation practice.

    • Mitosis Questions
      • If you cannot answer these questions I typed up then take a look at the resources directly below. Those are videos that I have personally watched and found very helpful and simple to follow. You HAVE to put some time into this unit because it can get quite confusing with all the chromosome and mitosis/meiosis information.
    • Mitosis Video
      • This is an amazing video about mitosis. Watch the WHOLE video! It really makes the process a lot simpler, and it actually explains some common misunderstandings when it comes to the concept of chromosomes and chromatids. Just remember that the nuclear membrane dissolves in prophase, and I only say this because the video makes it ambiguous at one point.
    • Chromosome Explanation video
      • Guys, if you are at all confused about how chromosomes work, like even in the least, take your time with this video. Make sure you can explain the difference between chromatids and chromosomes. Also be able to make sense of the number of chromosomes and chromatids before and after processes like mitosis & meiosis.
    • Mitosis Phases Worksheet
      • It’s always good to know what the phases actually look like rather than just knowing what happens in each phase.
    • Meiosis Video
      • Understand that meiosis and mitosis are two different processes. Be able to use words like: Haploid, diploid, gametes, somatic cells, chromosomes, chromatids, etc… to describe both mitosis and meiosis.
    • Meiosis Questions
      • Here are some questions I typed up about meiosis. Use the resources given by your professor as well as the ones I have given here in order to find the information to answer these.
    • Pedigree Video
      • This channel has great explanations on many biology concepts, so make sure to check out any other relevant videos they may have if I have not linked them. Keep in mind that we do Punnett squares a bit different in this class, so always use the 2^n formula before making a Punnett Square.
    • Non-Mendelian Genetics
      • Just remember that this does not list all of the ones you need to know.
    • Calico & Tortoiseshell Cats Explained
      • Definitely check this page out. It is a brief read, but it has some great information.
    • ABO Blood Type Video
      • Learn the differences between genotype and phenotype in terms of blood types.
    • Sex-Linked Genes and Punnett Squares
      • This is an important concept to understand. The video even uses the same hemophilia example that was used in lecture.
    • Blood Types Including Rh
      • This shows you the different ways that every blood type (ABO) can be either positive or negative.

    • Organelle Functions
    • Prokaryotes vs. Eukaryotes
    • Phospholipid Bilayer
    • 4 Macromolecules:

      • Carbohydrates:(Don’t worry about memorizing all of the examples that are given)
      • Lipids:
        (Don’t worry about the steroid or wax parts)
      • Proteins:
        (Secondary protein structure does not involve R-group bonds, so ignore that part)
      • Nucleic Acids:

        (Definitely remember which nitrogenous base bonds with which in both DNA and RNA as well as the structure of a nucleotide!)

        • (Here are a couple of memory devices for DNA in order to remember which Nitrogenous base bonds to which):
        • A-T bond together and C-G bond together.
        • ColGATE — They bond in order, so C-G & A-T
        • I like to look AT George Clooney — A-T & G-C
        • Now attempt to remember which pair of Nitrogenous base bonds with 3 hydrogen bonds and which pair bonds with 2 hydrogen bonds:
        • G-C bond with 3 & A-T bond with 2.
        • G-C-3: It rhymes
        • Gee, I See 3!: It rhymes
        • ATCHOO!: It sounds like AT TWO
    • Hypertonic vs. Hypotonic vs. Isotonic
      (Be able to connect terms like: shrink, swell, lyse, crenate, plasmolyze, turgid, and flaccid to each of the types of solution above)
    • Sodium-Potassium Pump
      (Make sure you know its an example of antiport transport. Also learn their abbreviations, Na+ & K+)
    • Enzyme Concept
      (Make sure you understand the concept of enzymes before you go on to learn about other things like inhibitors)
    • Endergonic vs. Exergonic Reactions
      (You do not necessarily need to know endothermic and exothermic, but it really does help tie the whole concept together)
    • Entropy
      (This is just a fun video that gives you the general idea of what makes entropy increase over time)
    • ATP
      (Know what ATP stands for as well as how it releases energy)
    • Enzyme Inhibition
      (Only watch until the 3 minute mark because everything else is not necessary information)
      (ALSO make sure you learn what negative-feedback inhibition is because it is not mentioned in the video)
    • Awesome Respiration Summary From Lecture Notes